Top-Down Chemical Production
Brine, also known as concentrate, is the highly concentrated saline water produced as a by-product in desalination processes. This liquid stream contains most of the dissolved solids of feedwater in concentrated form, as well as some pre-treatment chemicals (e.g., residual amounts of coagulants and flocculants) and microbial contaminants.
The stabilization of educts refers to the waste products of polymer production, for example stearin or polystyrene. These polymers are used as an energy source for combustion.
Production of Nanostructured Materials
Chemical manufacturing processes intentionally initiating cavitation during production allows manufacturers the ability to create extremely effective, reliable, and shelf-stable products. Cavitation is often employed to homogenize particles within colloidal suspensions, thus enabling to create a wide range of chemical products including polymers, plastics, pigments, paints, pastes, pharmaceuticals and more.
Pulp and paper are made from cellulosic fibres and other plant materials. Some synthetic materials may be used to impart special qualities to the finished product.